Obesity Essay Example and Tips
HOW TO WRITE AN ESSAY ON OBESITY
Free composition of an essay implies a creative approach to writing it. That is why there is no one specific recipe of writing a “correct” essay. There may be thousands and millions of unique and completely different essays about obesity (and any other topic of your choice). Nevertheless, there is a formal structure, which is recommended to follow even in such a free genre as essay writing. It looks as follows:
- Introduction, the aim of which is to capture attention and interest of the reader.
- Main body, which usually consists of three paragraphs. Each of the paragraphs deals with one fact or side of the problem. In our case they are: cause of obesity, symptoms of obesity and complications of obesity.
- Conclusion, which sums up the given information.
TOPIC EXAMPLES FOR ESSAY ON OBESITY
- Hidden risks of obesity
- Methods of combating obesity
- The main causes of obesity
- Sugar as one of the main causes of obesity
- Diet or exercise? How to defeat obesity
EXAMPLE OF INTRODUCTION OF OBESITY ESSAY
Obesity is the excess fat deposits in the subcutaneous tissue, organs and tissues. It is manifested by an increase in body weight by 20 percent or more from the average values due to adipose tissue. It delivers psycho-physical discomfort, causes sexual disorders, diseases of the spine and joints. Obesity increases the risk of atherosclerosis, IHD, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, kidney, liver, as well as disability and mortality from these diseases. Women are subjected to the development of obesity twice as often as men, the critical age for the appearance of excess weight is from 30 to 60 years.
The study of obesity and methods of dealing with it is not only concerned with endocrinology. According to the estimates of international experts WHO obesity is a global epidemic of the present, covering millions of the world’s inhabitants, regardless of professional, social, national, geographical, gender and age groups.
Patients with obesity 2-3 times more often suffer from hypertension, 3-4 times – from angina and ischemic heart disease than people with normal weight. Virtually any disease, even such as cold, influenza and pneumonia, in obese patients are longer and heavier, have a greater percentage of complications.
FIRST PARAGRAPH OF THE MAIN BODY
CAUSES OF OBESITY
The development of obesity is most often caused by a violation of the balance between the energy intake from food and the energy expenditure of the body. Excess calories, received in the body and not consumed by it, are converted to fat, which is accumulated in the fat stores of the body (mainly in the subcutaneous tissue, omentums, abdominal wall, internal organs, etc.). The increase in fat reserves leads to an increase in body weight and disruption of the functioning of many body systems. Overeating leads to obesity in more than 90%, another 5% of cases of obesity is caused by a metabolic disorder.
Changes in eating behavior occur as a result of a violation of hypothalamic-pituitary regulation, which is responsible for controlling behavioral responses. Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system leads to an increase in the production of ACTH, the rate of secretion of cortisol and the acceleration of its metabolism. There is a decrease in secretion of somatotropic hormone, which has a lipolytic effect, hyperinsulinemia develops, a disorder of thyroid hormone metabolism and tissue sensitivity to them.
The development of obesity is facilitated by a number of factors:
- low-activity lifestyle;
- genetically caused disorders of enzymatic activity (increased activity of lipogenesis enzymes and decreased activity of craniocerebral injuries of enzymes that break down fats (lipolysis);
- inaccuracies in the nature and diet (excessive intake of carbohydrates, fats, salt, sweet and alcoholic beverages, eating at night, etc.);
- some endocrine pathologies (hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, insulinoma, Cushing’s disease);
- psychogenic overeating;
- physiological conditions (lactation, pregnancy, menopause);
- stress, lack of sleep, the use of psychotropic and hormonal drugs (steroids, insulin, birth control pills), etc.
SECOND PARAGRAPH OF THE MAIN BODY
SYMPTOMS OF OBESITY
Excessive body weight serves as a specific symptom of obesity. Excess fat deposits are found on the shoulders, abdomen, back, on the sides of the trunk, occiput, thighs, in the pelvic region, with underdevelopment of the muscular system. The patient’s external appearance changes: a second chin appears, pseudo-gynecomastia develops, the fat folds hang on the abdomen in the form of an apron, the hips take the form of riding breeches. The umbilical and inguinal hernia are typical.
Patients with I and II degrees of obesity can not make any special complaints, with more severe obesity, there come drowsiness, weakness, sweating, irritability, nervousness, shortness of breath, nausea, constipation, peripheral swelling, pain in the spine and joints.
Patients with obesity of III-IV degree develop disorders of cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive systems. Objectively revealed hypertension, tachycardia, deaf heart tone. The high standing of the dome of the diaphragm leads to the development of respiratory failure and a chronic pulmonary heart. There is fatty infiltration of the liver parenchyma, chronic cholecystitis and pancreatitis. There are pains in the spine, symptoms of arthrosis of the ankles and knee joints. Often obesity is accompanied by violations of the menstrual cycle, up to the development of amenorrhea. Increased sweating causes the development of skin diseases (eczema, pyoderma, furunculosis), the appearance of acne, striae on the abdomen, hips, shoulders, hyperpigmentation of the elbows, neck, places of increased friction.
Obesity of different species has a similar general symptomatology, differences are observed in the nature of the distribution of fat and the presence or absence of signs of damage to the endocrine or nervous systems. With alimentary obesity, the body weight increases gradually, the fatty deposits are uniform, sometimes predominate in the region of the hips and abdomen. Symptoms of endocrine glands are absent.
With hypothalamic obesity, obesity develops rapidly, with the predominant deposition of fat on the abdomen, thighs, buttocks. There is an increase in appetite, especially towards evening, thirst, night hunger, dizziness, tremor. Characteristic trophic skin disorders: pink or white striae (stretch bands), dry skin. Women can develop hirsutism, infertility, menstrual irregularities, in men – a deterioration in potency. There is a neurological dysfunction: headaches, sleep disorder; vegetative disorders: sweating, arterial hypertension.
Endocrine form of obesity is characterized by the prevalence of symptoms of major diseases caused by hormonal disorders. The distribution of fat is usually uneven, there are signs of feminization or masculinization, hirsutism, gynecomastia, skin striae. A peculiar form of obesity is lipomatosis – benign hyperplasia of adipose tissue. It is manifested by numerous symmetrical painless lipomas, more often observed in men. Also there are painful lipomas (Derkum’s lipomatosis), which are located on the limbs and trunk, are painful on palpation and are accompanied by general weakness and local itching.
THIRD PARAGRAPH OF THE MAIN BODY
COMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY
In addition to psychological problems, almost all patients with obesity suffer from one or a number of syndromes or diseases caused by overweight: CHD, type II diabetes, arterial hypertension, stroke, angina pectoris, heart failure, cholelithiasis, liver cirrhosis, sleep apnea syndrome, chronic heartburn , arthritis, arthrosis, osteochondrosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, decreased fertility, libido, menstrual dysfunction, etc.
With obesity, the risk of breast, ovarian and uterine cancer in women, prostate cancer in men, and colon cancer increases. The risk of sudden death is also increased against the background of existing complications. The mortality of men aged 15 to 69 years, having an actual body weight exceeding the ideal weight by 20%, is one-third greater than for men with normal weight.
EXAMPLE OF CONCLUSION OF OBESITY ESSAY
Timely begun systematic measures for the treatment of obesity bring good results. Even with a 10% reduction in body weight, the overall mortality rate decreases by> 20%; mortality caused by diabetes,> than 30%; caused by concomitant obesity of oncological diseases,> by 40%. Patients with I and II degrees of obesity remain able to work; with the III degree – receive the III group of disability, and in the presence of cardiovascular complications, II group of disability.
For the prevention of obesity, for a person with a normal weight it is enough to spend calories and energy as much as he gets them during the day. With a hereditary predisposition to obesity, at the age of 40 years, with hypodynamia, it is necessary to limit the intake of carbohydrates, fats, increase in the diet of protein and plant foods. A reasonable physical activity is necessary: walking, swimming, running, attending gyms. If there is discontent with own weight, to reduce it, you need to turn to an endocrinologist and a nutritionist to assess the extent of violations and make up an individual weight loss program.
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